Fierce competition and budgetary pressures have motivated software
companies to distribute their development activities across national
and organizational borders. This type of development in which team
members belong to different countries is termed as Global Software
Development (GSD). The main motivation behind GSD is the desire
to reduce cost of development by utilizing pool of low–salaried, skilled
software engineers belonging to less developed economies. Other
impetus includes closer proximity to customer, reduced time to market
by exploiting time zone differences, improved work modularization,
innovation and learning. However, the potential benefits of GSD are
only partially achieved due to several distances that interfere with
management and execution of these projects. The distances that
interplay between distributed teams are geographical, temporal, socio–
cultural, and organizational which result into communication,
coordination, control, and collaboration challenges .
Team members of distributed team have limited or no face–to–face
interactions, belong to different cultures, speak different native
languages, and work in different time–zones. Therefore, they have
limited opportunities for coordination, collaboration, and trust building
. Large numbers of distributed projects faildue to the absence of
effective management of distributed projects . However, collocated
project management techniques and strategies do not consider the
impact of these distances thus, need to be reassessed and modified for
distributed projects . A strict communication plan, awareness,
respect for each other culture and unbiased management is necessary
for building cohesive team [9, 36]. Thus, a project management
strategy that encompasses social as well as technical aspects can
alleviate the impact of these distances on the working of distributed
teams [4, 6].
This paper is structured as follows: Section 2 presents a brief overview
of global software project management and its associated challenges.
Section 3 discusses related work whereas section 4 presents the
proposed framework for global software project management. Finally,
section 5 concludes the paper.
2. GLOBAL SOFTWARE PROJECT
Project management is a discipline that governs skills, knowledge,
tools, and techniques that can help in fulfilling project requirements
towards successful software development. A project management
framework consists of stakeholders, knowledge areas, tools, and
techniques for managing, monitoring, and controlling projects. Project
stakeholders are the individuals who are either involved in or
influenced by the project. The knowledge areas for project
management are scope, time, cost, quality, risk, human resource,
communication, procurement, stakeholder, and integration
management . Some of the criteria that can help in achieving
project success are customer involvement, clear business objectives,
competent project leader, skilled team members, efficient delivery
process, appropriate metrics, integrated tools and infrastructure.
Effective project management techniques enhance reliability,
productivity, employee morale, profit and reduce development time as
well as cost. It helps teams to coordinate effectively, achieve strategic
goals, and control physical and human resources in a better way .
Satisfied customers, reduced risks, effective decision making, better
knowledge and quality management techniques are few more benefits
of project management methodology .
Distributed projects face numerous challenges in addition to the
general challenges of project management . Geographical
separation and time zone differences negatively influence frequency of
communication, transparency, visibility, decision making, and issue
resolution. These problems are compounded by socio–cultural
dissimilarities and linguistic differences in distributed teams which
adversely affect team cohesiveness, trust , and knowledge sharing
. Further, organizational distances result into process as well as
tool mismatch and dissimilar working culture. These distances hamper
communication, coordination, control, and collaboration processes.